Can be converted back to lead, lead dioxide and water when the battery is charged
Very low internal impedance (usually <8mohms)
Stage 2: Barrier Sulfation
Covalent bonds form and small crystals start to appear on the lead plates
Higher internal impedance than Spongy Sulfation
May not be able to crank a car
Stage 3: Crystallized Sulfation
Large crystals with very strong bonds form on the lead plates
Very little surface area where chemical reactions can take place
Very high internal impedance
Battery can no longer start a car
Battery Boost - The Best "Solution" for Sulfation
How Battery Boost Liquid Desulfator Works As most vehicles are usually parked longer than they're being driven, the batteries are left discharging for longer periods of time than when they are being charged.
Charging: 2PbSO4 + 2H20 → Pb + PbO2 + 2H2SO4
Discharging: Pb + PbO2 + 2H2SO4 → 2PbSO4 + 2H20
This causes water and lead sulfate (PbSO4) to form at a faster rate than it can be reconverted back to lead, lead dioxide and water. Lead sulfate that's left sitting, originally spongy, will eventually crystallize. Once in crystal form, the lead sulfate cannot be reconverted, even when the battery is being charged. This causes a reduction in active material (the lead and lead dioxide) and surface area where chemical reaction takes place. Eventually, the battery will no longer have the capability to supply enough cranking current to start a car. This process, also known as sulfation, is the main cause why batteries fail prematurely! Battery Boost is a specially formulated, proprietary liquid chemical solution, that dissolves the crystallized sulfate build up. This allows the lead sulfate to be reconverted once the battery is charged. A battery free from lead sulfate crystals will have its life span stretched to its maximum! No more premature failure due to sulfation!